Preocupación por hechos y situaciones en materia de seguridad en Medellín

21.02.2018 | | POR: OSHM

Preocupación por hechos y situaciones en materia de seguridad en Medellín

Desde el Observatorio de Seguridad Humana (OSH) de la Universidad de Antioquia se promueve un enfoque integral en virtud del cual la seguridad de las personas no se puede alcanzar si no se garantiza su bienestar y la efectividad de sus derechos humanos. En esta oportunidad, el OSH manifiesta a la opinión pública su preocupación por algunos hechos y situaciones en materia de seguridad frente a los que se considera que la actual administración municipal de Medellín debe ser mucho más clara con la ciudadanía.

Para comenzar, el reciente anuncio de preacuerdo entre el ex secretario de seguridad Gustavo Villegas y la Fiscalía, si bien propone una interesante discusión de orden jurídico -en atención a los motivos por los que no se incluye el delito de concierto para delinquir dentro de esa negociación para acceder a beneficios jurídicos, y las razones que tendría la misma Fiscalía para objetar dicho preacuerdo-, también hace manifiesto el silencio de la actual administración ante las graves imputaciones que conoció la opinión pública sobre posibles nexos entre el Sr. Villegas y estructuras criminales de la ciudad, acerca de lo cual permanecen muchas dudas que ninguna autoridad ha aclarado.

En tiempos en los que las instituciones políticas procuran construir o afianzar la confianza de los ciudadanos en ellas, este tipo de anuncios proponen un escenario donde dicha confianza se erosiona aún más, sobre todo considerando el incremento en el número de homicidios en la ciudad, en lo que parece ser una variación de las dinámicas del crimen organizado.

De acuerdo con el Sistema de Información para la Seguridad y la Convivencia (SISC), en 2017 ocurrieron 577 asesinatos en Medellín, 33 casos más que en 2016. Así mismo, en el mes de enero de 2018 se registraron 54 muertes violentas, frente a 40 ocurridas en el mismo período del año anterior, lo que representa un aumento del 35%. Adicionalmente, existen otros delitos que generan igual o mayor preocupación, como la extorsión, el desplazamiento forzado intraurbano y la desaparición forzada, de los que, pese a su gravedad, poco se habla, pues pareciesen ocupar un segundo plano en materia de seguridad en la ciudad.

Frente a la extorsión, en una reciente investigación realizada entre el OSH y el SISC de la Secretaría de Seguridad, se reconoce la complejidad de este fenómeno en Medellín y se amplía su comprensión como una dinámica que va más allá de un simple hecho delictual y corresponde a una expresión de control territorial ilegal por parte de estructuras criminales, que ante la precaria oferta estatal generan una “oferta de seguridad”, que en definitiva no es más que una “protección violenta”, donde las comunidades se ven sometidas a dichas estructuras y al control ilícito que ejercen. Mientras tanto, el gobierno municipal, con su limitada visión del fenómeno, no ha ofrecido alternativas diferentes a la operatividad para realizar capturas, a pesar de la alta inversión de recursos económicos en seguridad.

Así las cosas, si la seguridad se muestra como una de las prioridades de un gobernante, este debería hacer pronunciamientos no solo frente al estado actual del proceso del señor Villegas, sino también sobre situaciones estructurales, de visión y de resultados en materia de seguridad en la ciudad, como por ejemplo:

  • Atendiendo a la inversión en seguridad que ha realizado esta administración, ¿cómo se explica el incremento de los homicidios en los últimos meses y cuáles han sido las acciones para prevenirlo y enfrentarlo? ¿Cómo se expresa el componente de integralidad de las estrategias de intervención desplegadas según lo dispuesto en la Política Pública de Seguridad aprobada por medio del Acuerdo Municipal 21 del 4 de septiembre de 2015?
    Si se insiste en que una de las preocupaciones más relevantes hoy es cómo generar confianza de la ciudadanía en las instituciones, entonces ¿cómo se justifica la supresión de los gestores de seguridad de esa Secretaría, encargados de generar acercamientos en materia de seguridad entre la ciudadanía y la Policía?
  • En tal sentido, ¿cuál es el grado de articulación de las estrategias diseñadas a nivel de política pública y las que efectivamente se despliegan en los distintos barrios de la ciudad?
  • Finalmente, ¿cómo se articulan las estrategias de seguridad planteadas en la política pública con el cumplimiento de los Acuerdos de la Habana y el favorecimiento de la construcción de paz en la ciudad? En el escenario actual de asesinato de líderes sociales y comunitarios, es fundamental tener claras las estrategias de protección enmarcadas en las garantías de no repetición y las garantías de participación política.

 

OBSERVATORIO DE SEGURIDAD HUMANA

Universidad de Antioquia

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21 de febrero de 2018

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